Most studies rely on small-scale, snowball and convenience samples drawn primarily from personal and community networks or agencies. Academic fields Discourse. Children in lesbian families felt less parental pressure to conform to gender stereotypes, were less likely to experience their own gender as superior and were more likely to be uncertain about future heterosexual romantic involvement.
Children with lesbian mothers or gay fathers do not exhibit the poorer outcomes typically associated with nontraditional children being raised by gay couples are not adopted.
This applied for a range of well-being measures, including:. Jordan III issued a preliminary injunction striking down Mississippi's ban on same-sex couples from adoption, ruling the ban violates the Equal Protection Clause. The author suggests areas for further research on lesbian mothers and their children.
Part of that could be their own preferences, and part could be because of discrimination by adoption agencies that puts more difficult children with what caseworkers see as "less desirable" parents. The Family: Opposing Viewpoints.
The New York Times. From advertisements in gay publications, 55 gay or bisexual men were recruited who reported on 82 sons at least 17 yrs of age. Households with Children in the United States 1 22, households with children.
Participants included 44 adolescents parented by same-sex female couples and 44 adolescents parented by opposite-sex couples, matched on demographic characteristics and drawn from a national sample. Delinquency, victimization, and substance use among adolescents with female same-sex parents.
Flaks, D. A study of children conceived through surrogate mothers by Golombok et al. No action has been made in either case. American Academy of Nursing. Families with heterosexual mothers were matched to families with homosexual mothers on age and race of mother; length of mother and child separation from father; educational level and income of mother; and number, age, and sex of children.
These issues have important implications for managing clinical work with children of lesbian mothers or gay fathers.